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Picture in Picture Across All Platforms

Learn how to implement Picture in Picture for default and custom video players across all app platforms.

3.8/5 4 Ratings

Version

  • Swift 5, iOS 14, Xcode 12

These days, users expect the ability to play videos using Picture in Picture (PiP). PiP mode minimizes video content into a small window, allowing users to multitask. In this tutorial, you’ll learn how to add PiP support to an existing video app that was built using UIKit.

Specifically, you’ll learn about:

  • Background modes
  • Setting up AVAudioSession
  • Controlling Picture in Picture display
  • Using PiP with custom player controllers

This tutorial uses an iPhone, but the sample app is cross-platform and will also work on tvOS and macOS. PiP is part of AVKit, which is available on all platforms.

You’ll need a physical device to follow this tutorial. If you don’t have an iPhone, iPad or Apple TV available, you can use your Mac to test the PiP functionality using the My Mac target in Xcode.

Getting Started

Download the project materials using the Download Materials button at the top or bottom of this tutorial.

The Mac Target option in Xcode for RickTV

Build and run the starter project: the RickTV app.

The finished RickTV app.

RickTV has a variety of content but for some reason, only plays Rick Astley’s “Never Gonna Give You Up” regardless of the video you pick. Darn those internet trolls. :]

OK. Time to learn how to view RickTV in PiP!

Adding Background Modes

To enable PiP functionality in your app, you’ll need to add Background Modes capability.

Click the RickTV project in the Project navigator, then click Signing & Capabilities.

The Xcode Project navigator with the project selected, viewing the capabilities section

Note: Xcode may crash while performing the following step for the RickTV target. Simply restart it if this happens.

You’ll need to repeat the following steps for both the RickTV and RickTV-iOS targets:

  1. Select the RickTV or RickTV-iOS target.
  2. Click + Capability.
  3. Search for Background Modes, then double-click to add it as a capability.

    The background modes capability in the capability search pop-up

  4. In the newly added Background Modes section, select the Audio, AirPlay, and Picture in Picture checkbox.

    The background modes capability with only Audio, AirPlay, and Picture in Picture selected

Great! Now that you’ve set everything up, you can implement PiP in your app.

Implementing PiP

Open AppDelegate.swift.

Inside application(_:didFinishLaunchingWithOptions:), which is within AppDelegate, add the following code:

let audioSession = AVAudioSession.sharedInstance()

In the code above, you referenced the shared instance of AVAudioSession.

Next, add the following to the code you added in the previous step:

do {
  try audioSession.setCategory(.playback, mode: .moviePlayback)
} catch {
  print("Failed to set audioSession category to playback")
}

By doing this, you set the category of the audio session to .playback and the playback mode to .moviePlayback. This operation can fail, so you wrapped it in a do catch block.

Build and run. Play a video and you’ll see the PiP icon within the player controller.

AVPlayerViewController with Picture in Picture now displaying

Success! Tap the PiP icon to see that it works.

The RickTV category list screen with Picture in Picture playing a video

You’ve seen that PiP is almost automatic if you’re using the standard AVPlayerViewController. If your app has a custom playback controller, there is additional work you’ll need to do to support PiP. You’ll learn about that next.

Enabling PiP in a Custom Player Controller

You’re in luck — the sample project has a built-in custom player controller. To use it instead of the default, AVPlayerViewController, you need to change the line of code that tapping a video calls.

Open CategoryListViewController.swift and scroll to the UICollectionViewDataSource Implementation section that’s marked with a comment.

The last line of collectionView(_:didSelectItemAt:) is the method that presents the player controller:

presentPlayerController(with: player, customPlayer: false)

Change customPlayer to true to use the custom player controller.

Build and run. Tap a video to present the custom player controller.

The custom player controller playing a video

Awesome! The video plays within the custom controller. But… if you tap the PiP button, nothing happens. Don’t worry, you’ll fix that now.

Open CustomPlayerViewController.swift. Inside viewDidLoad(), below view.layer.addSublayer(playerLayer), add the following code:

pictureInPictureController = AVPictureInPictureController(
  playerLayer: playerLayer)
pictureInPictureController?.delegate = self

This code initializes pictureInPictureController and sets up its delegate.

Next, you’ll add functionality so your user can start and stop PiP in the custom player controller.

Starting and Stopping PiP

To allow your user to stop and start PiP mode, go to the extension of CustomPlayerViewController, which implements CustomPlayerControlsViewDelegate.

You’ll see two related methods: controlsViewDidRequestStartPictureInPicture(_:) and controlsViewDidRequestStopPictureInPicture(_:).

Inside controlsViewDidRequestStartPictureInPicture(_:), replace // Start PiP with:

pictureInPictureController?.startPictureInPicture()

Then, inside controlsViewDidRequestStopPictureInPicture(_:), replace // Stop PiP with:

pictureInPictureController?.stopPictureInPicture()

These methods tell the PiP controller to start or stop PiP when the user taps the appropriate button.

Make sure to only call the associated AVPictureInPictureController methods when you receive user input. App Review will not approve your app if you break this rule!

Build and run. Open a video and tap the button to start PiP.

Picture in Picture playing without dismissing the custom view controller first

Bravo! PiP starts playing within the custom controller, but you’re not done yet. If the user has chosen to play the video PiP, it’s reasonable to assume that they don’t want your app’s screen to display a huge message about how the video is now playing picture-in-picture. They probably want to get on with using the rest of your app. Also, if you tap the button to return to standard play from PiP, nothing happens. You’ll address the first of these issues next.

Dismissing the Custom Player Controller When PiP Starts

When the user starts PiP, you can assume it’s because they want to do something else in your app while continuing to enjoy the video. Currently, the sample app shows a message when the video plays in the PiP window. You can control what happens at the start and end of PiP playback using methods from the picture in picture controller’s delegate.

In CustomPlayerViewController.swift, scroll to the extension marked with AVPictureInPictureDelegate. The delegate methods are all present with empty implementations, to save you some typing!

First, inside pictureInPictureControllerDidStartPictureInPicture(_:), add the following code:

dismiss(animated: true, completion: nil)

Here you dismiss the custom player controller when PiP starts. But if you build and run and try this out, you’ll see the PiP window immediately close. This is because your custom player object is deallocated, and that was the only thing holding on to the PiP controller, which is therefore also deallocated. To prevent this, add the following code to pictureInPictureControllerWillStartPictureInPicture(_:):

activeCustomPlayerViewControllers.insert(self)

activeCustomPlayerViewControllers is a global Set which will keep your player object in memory, meaning you can safely dismiss it.

You’ll need to clean this up if the PiP controller fails or is closed by the user.

Handling PiP controller failure and closing

When the user closes PiP using the close button, or PiP mode fails, you’ll need to remove the custom player controller from the set of active controllers.

Inside pictureInPictureController(_:failedToStartPictureInPictureWithError:), add the following code:

activeCustomPlayerViewControllers.remove(self)

This removes the custom controller from the set of active controllers when PiP was unable to start.

Next, inside pictureInPictureControllerDidStopPictureInPicture(_:), write the same line:

activeCustomPlayerViewControllers.remove(self)

This does the same job as above, but is called when the user has closed the PiP window.

Now, build and run. Play a video and enter PiP mode.

The custom controller dismisses itself when Picture in Picture starts

Starting PiP now dismisses the custom player controller, and closing the PiP window works. But if you tap the button to return to standard full-screen playback from PiP, continuing to play the same video, nothing happens. You’ll deal with that now.

Restoring the Player Controller

Right now, when you start playing a video in PiP mode, you can close the window altogether but you can’t go back to full screen. This is true for both the default AVPlayerViewController and the custom player controller. To get unstuck, you need to add player controller restoration.

Inside CustomPlayerViewController.swift‘s pictureInPictureController(_:restoreUserInterfaceForPictureInPictureStopWithCompletionHandler:), insert the following code:

delegate?.playerViewController(
  self,
  restoreUserInterfaceForPictureInPictureStopWithCompletionHandler: 
    completionHandler)

CustomPlayerViewController has a delegate that mirrors many of the methods contained in AVPlayerViewControllerDelegate. The method you are calling here is the equivalent to the one the standard player would call when the user requests to go back to standard playback from PiP.

Now open CategoryListViewController.swift. At the bottom of the file, you’ll see an extension of the class, which has one method: restore(playerViewController:completionHandler:).

For both types of player controllers, the delegate extensions call this method when the user taps Restore within the PiP window.

Inside the method, add the following code:

// 1
if let presentedViewController = presentedViewController {
  // 2
  presentedViewController.dismiss(animated: false) { [weak self] in
    // 3
    self?.present(playerViewController, animated: false) {
      completionHandler(true)
    }
  }
} else {
  // 4
  present(playerViewController, animated: false) {
    completionHandler(true)
  }
}

Here’s what’s happening in the code above:

  1. Check if any other view controller is already being presented. Maybe your user was watching two videos at once, how productive of them!
  2. If there is a presented controller, dismiss it without animation, since the user wants to get their video back to normal as soon as possible and isn’t interested in any view controller animations.
  3. Once the dismissal is done, present the original player controller, again without animation, then call the completion block so the system knows to hand playback back to the original player layer.
  4. If there was no presented controller, simply present the original controller again and call the completion block.

Build and run.

Picture in Picture restoration working correctly using the custom view controller

The GIF above shows both code paths in action:

  1. Entering PiP and then restoring continues the PiP video in full screen.
  2. Entering PiP, starting a second video, then restoring PiP replaces the full screen video with the PiP content.

To test PiP using AVPlayerViewController instead of the custom player controller, modify customPlayer in the last line of CategoryListViewController‘s collectionView(_:didSelectItemAt:) by changing it to false:

presentPlayerController(with: player, customPlayer: false)

This will present the system player controller instead of yours, and you can see that the same player restoration behavior also works.

Where to Go From Here?

Download the completed project by clicking the Download Materials button at the top or bottom of this tutorial.

Congratulations on finishing the tutorial! Remember, while this tutorial focuses on iOS’s PiP implementation, the majority of the content applies to other Apple platforms like tvOS or macOS as well.

To learn more about PiP, check out Master Picture in Picture on tvOS from WWDC 2020.

You can also learn more about AVKit, which powers video playback on Apple platforms.

We hope you enjoyed this tutorial. If you have any questions or comments, please join the forum discussion below!

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