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Android Accessibility by Tutorials

First Edition · Android 11 · Kotlin 1.4 · AS 4.1

Before You Begin

Section 0: 2 chapters
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Section I: Android Accessibility by Tutorials

Section 1: 13 chapters
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Section II: Appendix

Section 2: 1 chapter
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2. Hello, Accessibility!
Written by Victoria Gonda

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One of the best ways to learn is to jump right in and start applying your new knowledge. Throughout this book, you’ll be working on making an app more accessible. You’ll be able to apply the techniques you learn here right away, whether you’re working on an existing app or building a new one outside of this book. You don’t even need to finish the book to start applying the new information from each chapter in your projects!

You’ll soon see that you already have the tools to get started and that it takes only a couple of lines of code to make a big difference for your users.

Introducing Taco Tuesday

Taco Tuesday is the name of the app you’ll develop as you work through this book. It allows you to discover and save new recipes to enjoy on your next Taco Tuesday. Once you’ve found a recipe you like, you can indicate that you made it, rate it and add notes.

Find the starter project in the materials for this chapter and open it in Android Studio. Build and run.

You’ll see that there are auto-advancing slides followed by recipe cards at the on-boarding stage. You can swipe the recipe cards to the right and left to save for later or pass them up, respectively, and move to the next recipe.

On-boarding screenshot next to discover screenshot.
On-boarding screenshot next to discover screenshot.

Tap Favorites to see the saved recipes. To see a details screen that shows all the ingredients and instructions for a certain recipe, tap the View icon on the recipe card. From here, you can add your rating and notes if you’ve saved the recipe.

Recipe list screenshot next to details view screenshot.
Recipe list screenshot next to details view screenshot.

Finally, you’ll see some pop-up dialogs and a bare-bones settings screen.

Screen shot of pop-up next to screenshot of settings screen.
Screen shot of pop-up next to screenshot of settings screen.

You may have noticed the app has several unpleasant features. The pop-ups are disruptive and the on-boarding process is unclear.

As you improve the app’s accessibility, you’ll also improve the overall user experience. When you complete this book, the app will look more like this:

Screenshots of final discover, list, and details views.
Screenshots of final discover, list, and details views.

So much nicer! Without further adieu, it’s time to dig in and start improving this app!

Improving accessibility through linters

Do you feel lucky? Well, you are! Not only do you have this book in your hands, but you probably use one of the tools that can make your app more accessible: lint. Android linters include a category that’s all about supporting accessibility.

List of linters in Android Studio.
Hess ac cinxiby uz Irkruew Bvorue.

By default, there are two lint profiles to choose from.
Jw malaewk, yxixu ufe ste yuby hcosoyiw va jpuidi mkom.

Check each accessibility linter.
Ynibq aimg uvsigwirazenb ciqkep.

Warning severity.
Vikteqn qenexejc.

Seeing lint errors

You have some options for how to view lint errors. The first way is to use Gradle in the command line. Run this command if you’re on Linux or Mac:

./gradlew lint
gradlew lint
List of linter warnings.
Cunh en yefpob vofrenvj.

Missing contentDescription attribute on image.
Fiyxipz dahbadjJazhcinzooc exbbilaki en ipihu.

Understanding content descriptions

That contentDescription warning is one of the accessibility components. But what does it mean?

Details description vs missing contentDescription.
Bojoavy buzhrawlioy lr bahdudc zocmojxHafbhepbiaf.

Adding content descriptions

Open fragment_discover.xml. The first element you’ll fix is the topmost ImageView with the contentDescription warning that has the ÍD discover_button_discard. This is the thumbs-down button on the first screen that you tap to pass on a recipe.


Adding more content descriptions

You’re a pro at this now! See if you can work through the following content descriptions with minimal instruction. If you get stuck, check the solution in the final project for this chapter.

Programmatically adding content descriptions

Sorry to inform you, but there’s one issue with your changes to recipe_detail_try_discard_button. Depending on whether you’ve saved the current recipe to try later or not, this view toggles between “Try it” and “Dismiss” in its behavior. This means you also need to toggle the content description. Next, you’ll implement a bit of Kotlin code to fix this issue.

recipeDetailTryDiscardButton.contentDescription =
recipeDetailTryDiscardButton.contentDescription =

Ignoring views

When you design for accessibility, you need to think about two types of content:


Handling decorative views

Go to fragment_recipe_detail.xml and find a view with the ID recipe_detail_divider. As the name suggests, this view is a thin line that acts as a divider between sections. What should the user know about this?

  android:background="?colorControlHighlight" />

Fixing keyboard inaccessible widgets

When you run the linter, you’ll see KeyboardInaccessibleWidget amongst the warnings. Find and click it to go to the detailed list of files.


Defining WCAG

This book teaches you the best practices for and conforms to the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (or WCAG) version 2.1 as the standard for accessibility. These guidelines are an industry standard.

Building a POUR app

WCAG uses a lovely little acronym to categorize the principles of the requirements:

Perceivable, Operable, Understandable, Robust.
Weqgoopuwla, Atipaqqi, Uxjixyrujzezce, Jesirw.

Measuring using levels of compliance

WCAG provides levels of conformance for each of its guidelines, which include A, AA, and AAA, going from lowest to highest. Level A conformance means you’ll meet most people’s needs The industry best practice is to meet at least A or AA.

Choosing universal design

There are two predominant strategies for designing accessible apps: accessible design and universal design.


Challenge 1: Solve the ContentDescription warning

Remember, the last time you ran the linter there was one more ContentDescription warning. Now’s the time to show your stuff by solving it!

Key points

  • Android lint is a useful tool for identifying accessibility issues.
  • One or two lines of code can often solve accessibility warnings.
  • Content descriptions tell accessibility services what a given image is.
  • To improve keyboard users’ experiences, add android:focusable="true" to a view that you declare android:clickable="true".
  • WCAG and the Android docs are excellent resources for understanding accessibility requirements.
  • Choose universal design over accessible design so that everyone has the same experience in your app.

Where to go from here?

Congrats! You’re already making great improvements to the app. If you got stuck at any point, check out the final and challenge projects included in the chapter materials.

Have a technical question? Want to report a bug? You can ask questions and report bugs to the book authors in our official book forum here.
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