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Using xcodebuild and the App Store Connect API to build and manage your app can be a lot of work. Isn’t extra work what you were trying to get away from by using automation? :]
Well, you don’t necessarily need to interact with xcodebuild yourself. There’s a collection of open-source tools that interact the Xcode toolchain and the App Store Connect API, so you don’t have to.
There are some alternatives, but the most popular approach to automating iOS builds is through the use of fastlane.
At its core, fastlane is a collection of Ruby scripts that make build automation easy and accessible to iOS developers. It’s a collection of tools that wrap xcodebuild, the App Store Connect API and more:
- cert creates and maintains your signing certificates.
- sigh handles provisioning profiles.
- gym builds, signs and packages apps.
- deliver uploads apps, metadata and screenshots to App Store Connect.
- pilot uploads builds for TestFlight and handles its administration.
- scan runs your project’s automated tests.
Those are just a few of fastlane’s many actions.
Even when all you have is a superb idea for an app, fastlane can help to streamline your development process – it can even:
- Create an app record on App Store Connect.
- Manage the entire code signing process by creating provisioning profiles and signing certificates.
- Create push notification certificates.
- Take screenshots across different devices and across different languages, saving hours spent taking marketing screenshots.
If that’s not enough, fastlane also comes with a rich plugin system for you to create any action your heart desires, and share it with other users.
It’s because of all this that the iOS community has accepted fastlane as the go-to approach for build automation.
Next up, as a first step to working with fastlane, you’ll add some simple build automation for Emitron:
- Run unit tests with
- If no tests fail, prepare for code signing with
- Build Emitron for the App Store with
- Upload Emitron to TestFlight with
- Upload builds for App Store review with
Strap yourself in; it’s time to start living life in the
In this chapter, you’ll be working with fastlane to upload builds to App Store Connect. To do so, you’ll need to make sure that the starter project’s app record, provisioning profile and signing certificate are correctly set up.
Note: To learn more about provisioning profiles, or if you need a refresher on configuring them, refer to Chapter 4, “Code Signing & Provisioning”.
To configure the starter project, refer back to the Setting up the starter project section in Chapter 12, “Build Automation”.
Note: The bundle identifier that you use for Emitron on App Store Connect should be the same as the one used throughout the book:
Once all of that’s done, you’re ready to install fastlane.
Once you’ve finished setting up your app record, provisioning profile and signing certificate, you’ll need to get fastlane working on your computer.
sudo gem install bundler
source "https://rubygems.org" gem "fastlane"
Setting up fastlane
Without setting up fastlane in a specific project, it’s about as useful as an empty build script. To start using fastlane, you need to give it some information about your project.
bundle exec fastlane init
Before worrying about uploading Emitron to App Store Connect for TestFlight or the App Store, you’ll first use fastlane to automate a simple build. You’ll gain familiarity in configuring a project for an automated build using fastlane.
# 1 ENV["FASTLANE_XCODEBUILD_SETTINGS_TIMEOUT"] = "600" # 2 default_platform(:ios) # 3 platform :ios do # 4 lane :build do scan end end
In fastlane’s current state, there are no explicit directions on how
scan should test Emitron.
scan(scheme: "Emitron", clean: true)
fastlane scan init
# 1 scheme("Emitron") # 2 device("iPhone 12 Pro")
Signing and building
From code signing to app archiving, the process is infamous for causing developers headaches. You can use fastlane can automate that minus the headaches.
cert sigh gym
Configuring code signing
sigh both need a bit more context to function. Each of them takes their configuration from Appfile, the configuration file for project metadata.
app_identifier("com.raywenderlich.emitron.pias") apple_id("firstname.lastname@example.org") itc_team_name("Keegan Rush") team_id("MC7X4Q9BS6")
To hand off the iOS apps build and package processes to fastlane, you’ll use
gym into your automation flow makes generating a signed
ipa a breeze.
gym uses the
sigh configurations you’ve setup earlier to sign your
fastlane gym init
# 1 scheme("Emitron") # 2 clean(true) # 3 output_directory("./") # 4 export_method("app-store")
Running the completed lane
With the actions you added, the
build lane will now:
Uploading to App Store Connect
When uploading to App Store Connect, you can choose to upload an app specifically for TestFlight or App Store review. To upload archived apps for their respective purposes, you’ll create two new lanes: alpha lane using Emitron’s alpha build and release lane using Emitron’s release build.
Creating the alpha lane
In Fastfile, add the following after the end of the
lane :alpha do # 1 build # 2 pilot # 3 increment_build_number end
Incrementing the build number
When uploading a build to App Store Connect, one particular error plagues developers more than any other. If you happened to forget to change your app’s build version, you’ll be greeted with a familiar Redundant Binary Upload error.
Setting up increment_build_number
Fastlane can’t automatically bump your build number without changing how your project’s versioning works.
Creating an app-specific password
If you want to upload an iOS app to App Store Connect from outside of Xcode or xcodebuild, you’ll need to generate an app-specific password. Rather than signing in with your Apple Developer account’s usual username and password, any tools that need access to your developer account must sign in using an app-specific password. If you don’t have one, and try to use your Apple ID’s regular password instead,
pilot will fail when trying to upload Emitron!
Running the alpha lane
To upload a new build to TestFlight, all you need to do is to run the
Creating the release lane
To upload a release build of Emitron, you’ll make a new lane similar to
lane :release do # 1 build # 2 deliver # 3 increment_build_number end
In the terminal, run the following:
fastlane deliver init
# 1 skip_metadata(true) # 2 skip_screenshots(true) # 3 force(true)
Running the release lane
In the terminal, run your new
More on fastlane
In this chapter, you’ve come a long way: from being restricted to manual builds in Xcode to an automated build pipeline with fastlane.
- Fastlane acts as a wrapper for
xcodebuildand the App Store Connect API.
- Fastlane can be broken down into a structure of platforms, lanes and actions.
- By using the vast variety of actions, fastlane can streamline your entire build process and make other project setups much easier.
- Most fastlane actions are configurable using one of fastlane’s various configuration files.